Have you been feeling down since the dark days of winter began? Having trouble sleeping? If so, you may be suffering from Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)....
What is SAD?
SAD is a form of clinical depression. People usually experience SAD syndrome beginning in late autumn or early winter, and they last until spring or early summer. SAD is thought to be caused by seasonal variations in light.
SAD is most common in northern countries where seasonal variations in light are considerable, and winter tends to be longer and harsher. In the United States, approximately 4-6% of the population is affected by SAD; 10-20% of the population experiences a less severe form of the disorder, “winter-onset SAD.” There is also a reverse form of the disorder called summer-onset depression, which affects people during the summer months.
SAD is more common in women than in men. Although adults over 20 are the ones most affected by the syndrome, children and teenagers can suffer from the disorder as well.
What causes SAD?
SAD was only fairly recently recognized as a disorder, so it is not fully understood. Since it occurs more in northern parts of the world and light therapy seems to be effective in treating it, it is thought to be related to the varying levels of light throughout the seasons.
Light affects the nerve centers in our brain that control daily moods and the rhythms of our “internal clock.” Researchers are particularly interested in the role of melatonin and serotonin in SAD.
Melatonin is a hormone secreted by a gland in the brain at night and during hours of low light. It is known to cause a drowsy feeling. Since there are lower levels of light during the winter the brain may release more melatonin, accounting for lower levels of energy in those suffering from SAD. It has been observed that sunlight has an effect on serotonin, a chemical in the brain, which also may play a role in SAD.
What are the symptoms of SAD?
The symptoms of SAD can range from mild to severe. For some, it can be debilitating, and for others simply a mild inconvenience. In general, SAD syndrome symptoms include:
How is SAD diagnosed?
The diagnosis of SAD can be difficult because many of the symptoms are similar to other forms of depression or bipolar disorder. People with mild cases of seasonal depression may just dismiss their symptoms as just simply the “winter blues.” One of the most telling signs is if the symptoms occur at the same time of year for more than two years in a row, and disappear in the spring and summer. Those with SAD also have normal mental health during the rest of the year.
How is SAD treated?
There are many ways that SAD-sufferers can deal with their disorder, which can help manage and relieve symptoms:
If you think you or someone you know may be suffering from SAD, speak with your doctor. They will be able to advise you on the best course of action. Your “winter blues” may be just that, or they may be a sign that you are suffering from SAD. Undoubtedly, admitting how you feel and learning more about it will help you feel better!
The summer brings great joys: beach weather, tanning, and flourishing plant life, but along with the good things summer brings an abundance of insect infestation. These bugs bite, sting, and otherwise irritate everyone trying to enjoy the great outdoors and the cheery weather.
Thankfully you can prevent these pesky bugs from irritating you and you can ease the pain of any bites you already have.
Created in World War II, a pesticide known as DEET helped protect soldiers from the plethora of bugs that would have otherwise eaten the soldiers alive. This repellent developed a bad reputation because in high concentrations or when DEET is used on a daily basis for years it can cause harmful side effects.
It was discovered that DEET increased the risk of seizures and neurological conditions. Although this may sound dangerous it is actually much less of an issue than it seems. Only 1 in 100,000,000 people experience a problem with DEET. The chances of getting hit by lightning are significantly higher: 1 in 280,000 people. In fact, you are more likely to become president (1 in 10,000,000) than to experience a problem with DEET.
To apply a DEET based bug spray, simply spray it onto your exposed skin and you’re clothing. It is recommended that children use only 10 percent concentration of DEET and adults use a maximum of 30 percent. The percentage is merely related to the length of time DEET will last, not its efficiency. DEET will keep mosquitoes from landing on you, and will also keep away ticks! On top of this, DEET also keeps away chiggers – these are tiny insects that give a rash. DEET based sprays are currently available and most over the counter insect repellants.
If you already have bites you need treatment for over the counter pain killers are the best way to ease any pain. Tylenol, Benadryl and Advil are all helpful in easing pain caused by insect bites.